Key figures in the film industry. The characteristic elements of cinematography are:
Scenography, like chemistry on a movie screen, is the setting of a film both internal (room, house) and external (road, landscape). The scenographer can recreate the atmosphere of the film both inside the studio and outside, and create virtual landscapes on the computer, as in the film “The Lord of the Rings”.
Light and color are used to illuminate and color spaces and characters so that the viewer sees and creates the atmosphere well. The light is used to give a key for reading, in fact, one scene is illuminated relative to another, because it should attract the viewer’s attention. In addition, light and color are used to understand the type of film, for example, in Thriller films there is a lot of darkness, warm colors for comedies and romantic films.
The heroes of the film are film actors who, with their costumes, make-up, acting and set design, give us an idea of the environment and space. For example, an actor with clothes from the 700s makes us understand that this is a vintage film. Even acting can be natural or artificial.
Framing is important for films, and there are several types:
• Fields can be: long, very long and medium. The first two are used to capture very large spaces, the middle means that there is a proportion between the characters and the background.
• Aircraft can be: – full figure (from head to toe) – American plane (from knees up) – floor figure (from torso up) – first floor (head and shoulders) – very first floor (only face). The camera can be located at different angles, but is usually frontal to reproduce the viewer’s point of view. It has movements through: – zoom – trolley – panoramic – hand-held machine – trolley.
Assembly is the phase in which the director, together with the film editor, selects frames and decides how to arrange them in accordance with the logical order and narration and elimination of unnecessary films.
Thirty years ago, this phase was made with slow motion, that is, they cut the film, and then glued the selected pieces. Today, this procedure takes place on a computer. Procedures for the transition from one frame to another: -difference (so that the image disappears and another image appears at the same time). -campo- controcampo (this is a restoration that helps us understand that two actors are speaking one before the other). – separation (he suddenly goes from one frame to another, but the viewer realizes that the actor is in the same situation). Sound appears in the 30s with sound films.
The film contains three types of sound:
• Dialogues based on words spoken by actors recorded during the filming.
• Noises necessary to attract the viewer and increase the realism of the scene.
• Music is important for us to understand the mood of the characters, and if the scenes are fighting, romantic, dramatic, etc.
Producer. He is the art and technical director of the film. Supervises acting and actresses. Check the work of technicians, coordinate and direct all employees. He prepares work with a screenwriter, monitors the shooting and editing. He is considered the real author of the film, those who give their own style their own stylistic imprint. Coordinates the work of heads of various departments: production manager, screenwriter, director of photography, stage designer and editor.
First Assistant Director. He is the first assistant director. He does not intervene creatively in making the film, but he organizes and plans filming. He oversees the work of technicians and coordinates the crew and actors, following the directions of the director.
The script is the last step in writing a movie. It can be written in 3 ways: Italian, French, American. The Italian script divides the sheet into 2 columns (left and right). • The left column contains: progressive frame number; recovery plan; machine movements and other technical indications; description of the action and plastic; actors’ movements and expressions; A way to switch from one image to another is possible. • The right column contains: a soundtrack consisting of dialogs, noise, music, sound effects.A film photograph is a set of images that make up a film. It differs from photography in the strict sense, because it is not static, but is transformed with the help of various elements: movement of characters, objects, camera, position of lights, compartments of the assembly. The filmmaker puts the lights on the set, taking care of their position and strength. Distinguishes intradihegetic from extradihegetic light sources. He cares about the color of the image to convey accurate emotions to the viewer. He takes care of any lighting changes during assembly.